Copyright | Ross Paterson 2005 |
---|---|
License | BSD-style (see the LICENSE file in the distribution) |
Maintainer | libraries@haskell.org |
Stability | experimental |
Portability | portable |
Safe Haskell | Trustworthy |
Language | Haskell2010 |
Class of data structures that can be folded to a summary value.
Synopsis
- class Foldable t where
- fold :: Monoid m => t m -> m
- foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> t a -> m
- foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> t a -> m
- foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b
- foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b
- foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b
- foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b
- foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> t a -> a
- foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> t a -> a
- toList :: t a -> [a]
- null :: t a -> Bool
- length :: t a -> Int
- elem :: Eq a => a -> t a -> Bool
- maximum :: forall a. Ord a => t a -> a
- minimum :: forall a. Ord a => t a -> a
- sum :: Num a => t a -> a
- product :: Num a => t a -> a
- foldrM :: (Foldable t, Monad m) => (a -> b -> m b) -> b -> t a -> m b
- foldlM :: (Foldable t, Monad m) => (b -> a -> m b) -> b -> t a -> m b
- traverse_ :: (Foldable t, Applicative f) => (a -> f b) -> t a -> f ()
- for_ :: (Foldable t, Applicative f) => t a -> (a -> f b) -> f ()
- sequenceA_ :: (Foldable t, Applicative f) => t (f a) -> f ()
- asum :: (Foldable t, Alternative f) => t (f a) -> f a
- mapM_ :: (Foldable t, Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m ()
- forM_ :: (Foldable t, Monad m) => t a -> (a -> m b) -> m ()
- sequence_ :: (Foldable t, Monad m) => t (m a) -> m ()
- msum :: (Foldable t, MonadPlus m) => t (m a) -> m a
- concat :: Foldable t => t [a] -> [a]
- concatMap :: Foldable t => (a -> [b]) -> t a -> [b]
- and :: Foldable t => t Bool -> Bool
- or :: Foldable t => t Bool -> Bool
- any :: Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool
- all :: Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool
- maximumBy :: Foldable t => (a -> a -> Ordering) -> t a -> a
- minimumBy :: Foldable t => (a -> a -> Ordering) -> t a -> a
- notElem :: (Foldable t, Eq a) => a -> t a -> Bool
- find :: Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Maybe a
Documentation
Data structures that can be folded.
For example, given a data type
data Tree a = Empty | Leaf a | Node (Tree a) a (Tree a)
a suitable instance would be
instance Foldable Tree where foldMap f Empty = mempty foldMap f (Leaf x) = f x foldMap f (Node l k r) = foldMap f l `mappend` f k `mappend` foldMap f r
This is suitable even for abstract types, as the monoid is assumed
to satisfy the monoid laws. Alternatively, one could define foldr
:
instance Foldable Tree where foldr f z Empty = z foldr f z (Leaf x) = f x z foldr f z (Node l k r) = foldr f (f k (foldr f z r)) l
Foldable
instances are expected to satisfy the following laws:
foldr f z t = appEndo (foldMap (Endo . f) t ) z
foldl f z t = appEndo (getDual (foldMap (Dual . Endo . flip f) t)) z
fold = foldMap id
length = getSum . foldMap (Sum . const 1)
sum
, product
, maximum
, and minimum
should all be essentially
equivalent to foldMap
forms, such as
sum = getSum . foldMap Sum
but may be less defined.
If the type is also a Functor
instance, it should satisfy
foldMap f = fold . fmap f
which implies that
foldMap f . fmap g = foldMap (f . g)
fold :: Monoid m => t m -> m #
Combine the elements of a structure using a monoid.
foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> t a -> m #
Map each element of the structure to a monoid, and combine the results.
foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> t a -> m #
A variant of foldMap
that is strict in the accumulator.
Since: base-4.13.0.0
foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b #
Right-associative fold of a structure.
In the case of lists, foldr
, when applied to a binary operator, a
starting value (typically the right-identity of the operator), and a
list, reduces the list using the binary operator, from right to left:
foldr f z [x1, x2, ..., xn] == x1 `f` (x2 `f` ... (xn `f` z)...)
Note that, since the head of the resulting expression is produced by
an application of the operator to the first element of the list,
foldr
can produce a terminating expression from an infinite list.
For a general Foldable
structure this should be semantically identical
to,
foldr f z =foldr
f z .toList
foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b #
Right-associative fold of a structure, but with strict application of the operator.
Since: base-4.6.0.0
foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b #
Left-associative fold of a structure.
In the case of lists, foldl
, when applied to a binary
operator, a starting value (typically the left-identity of the operator),
and a list, reduces the list using the binary operator, from left to
right:
foldl f z [x1, x2, ..., xn] == (...((z `f` x1) `f` x2) `f`...) `f` xn
Note that to produce the outermost application of the operator the
entire input list must be traversed. This means that foldl'
will
diverge if given an infinite list.
Also note that if you want an efficient left-fold, you probably want to
use foldl'
instead of foldl
. The reason for this is that latter does
not force the "inner" results (e.g. z `f` x1
in the above example)
before applying them to the operator (e.g. to (`f` x2)
). This results
in a thunk chain O(n)
elements long, which then must be evaluated from
the outside-in.
For a general Foldable
structure this should be semantically identical
to,
foldl f z =foldl
f z .toList
foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b #
Left-associative fold of a structure but with strict application of the operator.
This ensures that each step of the fold is forced to weak head normal
form before being applied, avoiding the collection of thunks that would
otherwise occur. This is often what you want to strictly reduce a finite
list to a single, monolithic result (e.g. length
).
For a general Foldable
structure this should be semantically identical
to,
foldl' f z =foldl'
f z .toList
Since: base-4.6.0.0
foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> t a -> a #
A variant of foldr
that has no base case,
and thus may only be applied to non-empty structures.
foldr1
f =foldr1
f .toList
foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> t a -> a #
A variant of foldl
that has no base case,
and thus may only be applied to non-empty structures.
foldl1
f =foldl1
f .toList
List of elements of a structure, from left to right.
Since: base-4.8.0.0
Test whether the structure is empty. The default implementation is optimized for structures that are similar to cons-lists, because there is no general way to do better.
Since: base-4.8.0.0
Returns the size/length of a finite structure as an Int
. The
default implementation is optimized for structures that are similar to
cons-lists, because there is no general way to do better.
Since: base-4.8.0.0
elem :: Eq a => a -> t a -> Bool infix 4 #
Does the element occur in the structure?
Since: base-4.8.0.0
maximum :: forall a. Ord a => t a -> a #
The largest element of a non-empty structure.
Since: base-4.8.0.0
minimum :: forall a. Ord a => t a -> a #
The least element of a non-empty structure.
Since: base-4.8.0.0
The sum
function computes the sum of the numbers of a structure.
Since: base-4.8.0.0
product :: Num a => t a -> a #
The product
function computes the product of the numbers of a
structure.
Since: base-4.8.0.0
Instances
Foldable [] # | Since: base-2.1 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => [m] -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> [a] -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> [a] -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> [a] -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => [a] -> a # | |
Foldable Maybe # | Since: base-2.1 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Maybe m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Maybe a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Maybe a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Maybe a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Maybe a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Maybe a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Maybe a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Maybe a -> a # | |
Foldable Par1 # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Par1 m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Par1 a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Par1 a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Par1 a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Par1 a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Par1 a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Par1 a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Par1 a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Par1 a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Par1 a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Par1 a -> a # | |
Foldable NonEmpty # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => NonEmpty m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> NonEmpty a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> NonEmpty a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> NonEmpty a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> NonEmpty a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> NonEmpty a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> NonEmpty a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> NonEmpty a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> NonEmpty a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> NonEmpty a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => NonEmpty a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => NonEmpty a -> a # | |
Foldable Down # | Since: base-4.12.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Down m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Down a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Down a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Down a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Down a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Down a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Down a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Down a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Down a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Down a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Down a -> a # | |
Foldable Product # | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Product m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Product a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Product a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Product a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Product a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Product a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Product a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Product a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Product a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Product a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Product a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Product a -> a # | |
Foldable Sum # | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Sum m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Sum a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Sum a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Sum a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Sum a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Sum a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Sum a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Sum a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Sum a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Sum a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Sum a -> a # | |
Foldable Dual # | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Dual m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Dual a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Dual a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Dual a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Dual a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Dual a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Dual a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Dual a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Dual a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Dual a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Dual a -> a # | |
Foldable Last # | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Last m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Last a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Last a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Last a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Last a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Last a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Last a -> a # | |
Foldable First # | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => First m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> First a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> First a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> First a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> First a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> First a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> First a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> First a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> First a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> First a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => First a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => First a -> a # | |
Foldable Identity # | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Identity fold :: Monoid m => Identity m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Identity a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Identity a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Identity a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Identity a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Identity a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Identity a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Identity a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Identity a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Identity a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Identity a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Identity a -> a # | |
Foldable ZipList # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Control.Applicative fold :: Monoid m => ZipList m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> ZipList a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> ZipList a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> ZipList a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> ZipList a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> ZipList a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> ZipList a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> ZipList a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> ZipList a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> ZipList a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => ZipList a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => ZipList a -> a # | |
Foldable Option # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Semigroup fold :: Monoid m => Option m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Option a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Option a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Option a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Option a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Option a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Option a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Option a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Option a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Option a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Option a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Option a -> a # | |
Foldable Last # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Semigroup fold :: Monoid m => Last m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Last a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Last a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Last a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Last a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Last a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Last a -> a # | |
Foldable First # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Semigroup fold :: Monoid m => First m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> First a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> First a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> First a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> First a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> First a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> First a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> First a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> First a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> First a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => First a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => First a -> a # | |
Foldable Max # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Semigroup fold :: Monoid m => Max m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Max a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Max a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Max a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Max a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Max a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Max a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Max a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Max a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Max a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Max a -> a # | |
Foldable Min # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Semigroup fold :: Monoid m => Min m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Min a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Min a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Min a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Min a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Min a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Min a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Min a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Min a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Min a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Min a -> a # | |
Foldable Complex # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Complex fold :: Monoid m => Complex m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Complex a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Complex a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Complex a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Complex a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Complex a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Complex a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Complex a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Complex a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Complex a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Complex a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Complex a -> a # | |
Foldable (Either a) # | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Either a m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> Either a a0 -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> Either a a0 -> m # foldr :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b # foldr' :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b # foldl :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b # foldr1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Either a a0 -> a0 # foldl1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Either a a0 -> a0 # toList :: Either a a0 -> [a0] # length :: Either a a0 -> Int # elem :: Eq a0 => a0 -> Either a a0 -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 # minimum :: Ord a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 # | |
Foldable (V1 :: Type -> Type) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => V1 m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> V1 a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> V1 a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> V1 a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> V1 a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> V1 a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> V1 a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> V1 a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> V1 a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> V1 a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => V1 a -> a # | |
Foldable (U1 :: Type -> Type) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => U1 m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> U1 a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> U1 a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> U1 a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> U1 a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> U1 a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> U1 a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> U1 a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> U1 a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> U1 a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => U1 a -> a # | |
Foldable ((,) a) # | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => (a, m) -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> (a, a0) -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> (a, a0) -> m # foldr :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> (a, a0) -> b # foldr' :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> (a, a0) -> b # foldl :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> (a, a0) -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> (a, a0) -> b # foldr1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> (a, a0) -> a0 # foldl1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> (a, a0) -> a0 # elem :: Eq a0 => a0 -> (a, a0) -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a0 => (a, a0) -> a0 # minimum :: Ord a0 => (a, a0) -> a0 # | |
Foldable (Array i) # | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Array i m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Array i a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Array i a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Array i a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Array i a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Array i a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Array i a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Array i a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Array i a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Array i a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Array i a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Array i a -> a # | |
Foldable (Proxy :: Type -> Type) # | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Proxy m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Proxy a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Proxy a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Proxy a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Proxy a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Proxy a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Proxy a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Proxy a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Proxy a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Proxy a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Proxy a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Proxy a -> a # | |
Foldable (Arg a) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Semigroup fold :: Monoid m => Arg a m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> Arg a a0 -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> Arg a a0 -> m # foldr :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Arg a a0 -> b # foldr' :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Arg a a0 -> b # foldl :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Arg a a0 -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Arg a a0 -> b # foldr1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Arg a a0 -> a0 # foldl1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Arg a a0 -> a0 # elem :: Eq a0 => a0 -> Arg a a0 -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a0 => Arg a a0 -> a0 # minimum :: Ord a0 => Arg a a0 -> a0 # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (Rec1 f) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Rec1 f m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Rec1 f a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Rec1 f a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Rec1 f a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Rec1 f a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Rec1 f a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Rec1 f a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Rec1 f a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Rec1 f a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Rec1 f a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Rec1 f a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Rec1 f a -> a # | |
Foldable (URec Char :: Type -> Type) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => URec Char m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Char a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Char a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Char a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Char a -> a # toList :: URec Char a -> [a] # length :: URec Char a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Char a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => URec Char a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => URec Char a -> a # | |
Foldable (URec Double :: Type -> Type) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => URec Double m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Double a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Double a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Double a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Double a -> a # toList :: URec Double a -> [a] # null :: URec Double a -> Bool # length :: URec Double a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Double a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => URec Double a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => URec Double a -> a # | |
Foldable (URec Float :: Type -> Type) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => URec Float m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Float a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Float a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Float a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Float a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Float a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Float a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Float a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Float a -> a # toList :: URec Float a -> [a] # null :: URec Float a -> Bool # length :: URec Float a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Float a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => URec Float a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => URec Float a -> a # | |
Foldable (URec Int :: Type -> Type) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => URec Int m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Int a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Int a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Int a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Int a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Int a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => URec Int a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => URec Int a -> a # | |
Foldable (URec Word :: Type -> Type) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => URec Word m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Word a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Word a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Word a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Word a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Word a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Word a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Word a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Word a -> a # toList :: URec Word a -> [a] # length :: URec Word a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Word a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => URec Word a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => URec Word a -> a # | |
Foldable (URec (Ptr ()) :: Type -> Type) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => URec (Ptr ()) m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> a # toList :: URec (Ptr ()) a -> [a] # null :: URec (Ptr ()) a -> Bool # length :: URec (Ptr ()) a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => URec (Ptr ()) a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => URec (Ptr ()) a -> a # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (Alt f) # | Since: base-4.12.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Alt f m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Alt f a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Alt f a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Alt f a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Alt f a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Alt f a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Alt f a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Alt f a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Alt f a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Alt f a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Alt f a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Alt f a -> a # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (Ap f) # | Since: base-4.12.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Ap f m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Ap f a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Ap f a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Ap f a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Ap f a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Ap f a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Ap f a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Ap f a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Ap f a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Ap f a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Ap f a -> a # | |
Foldable (Const m :: Type -> Type) # | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Const fold :: Monoid m0 => Const m m0 -> m0 # foldMap :: Monoid m0 => (a -> m0) -> Const m a -> m0 # foldMap' :: Monoid m0 => (a -> m0) -> Const m a -> m0 # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Const m a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Const m a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Const m a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Const m a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Const m a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Const m a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Const m a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Const m a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Const m a -> a # | |
Foldable (K1 i c :: Type -> Type) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => K1 i c m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> K1 i c a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> K1 i c a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> K1 i c a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> K1 i c a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> K1 i c a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> K1 i c a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> K1 i c a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> K1 i c a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> K1 i c a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => K1 i c a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => K1 i c a -> a # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (f :+: g) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => (f :+: g) m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :+: g) a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :+: g) a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :+: g) a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :+: g) a -> a # toList :: (f :+: g) a -> [a] # length :: (f :+: g) a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> (f :+: g) a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => (f :+: g) a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => (f :+: g) a -> a # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (f :*: g) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => (f :*: g) m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :*: g) a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :*: g) a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :*: g) a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :*: g) a -> a # toList :: (f :*: g) a -> [a] # length :: (f :*: g) a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> (f :*: g) a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => (f :*: g) a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => (f :*: g) a -> a # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (Sum f g) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Sum fold :: Monoid m => Sum f g m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Sum f g a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Sum f g a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Sum f g a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Sum f g a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Sum f g a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Sum f g a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Sum f g a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Sum f g a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Sum f g a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Sum f g a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Sum f g a -> a # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (Product f g) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Product fold :: Monoid m => Product f g m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Product f g a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Product f g a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Product f g a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Product f g a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Product f g a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Product f g a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Product f g a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Product f g a -> a # toList :: Product f g a -> [a] # null :: Product f g a -> Bool # length :: Product f g a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> Product f g a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Product f g a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Product f g a -> a # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (M1 i c f) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => M1 i c f m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> M1 i c f a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> M1 i c f a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> M1 i c f a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> M1 i c f a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> M1 i c f a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> M1 i c f a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> M1 i c f a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> M1 i c f a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> M1 i c f a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => M1 i c f a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => M1 i c f a -> a # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (f :.: g) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => (f :.: g) m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :.: g) a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :.: g) a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :.: g) a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :.: g) a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :.: g) a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :.: g) a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :.: g) a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :.: g) a -> a # toList :: (f :.: g) a -> [a] # length :: (f :.: g) a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> (f :.: g) a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => (f :.: g) a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => (f :.: g) a -> a # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (Compose f g) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Compose fold :: Monoid m => Compose f g m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Compose f g a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Compose f g a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Compose f g a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Compose f g a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Compose f g a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Compose f g a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Compose f g a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Compose f g a -> a # toList :: Compose f g a -> [a] # null :: Compose f g a -> Bool # length :: Compose f g a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> Compose f g a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Compose f g a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Compose f g a -> a # |
Special biased folds
foldrM :: (Foldable t, Monad m) => (a -> b -> m b) -> b -> t a -> m b #
Monadic fold over the elements of a structure, associating to the right, i.e. from right to left.
foldlM :: (Foldable t, Monad m) => (b -> a -> m b) -> b -> t a -> m b #
Monadic fold over the elements of a structure, associating to the left, i.e. from left to right.
Folding actions
Applicative actions
traverse_ :: (Foldable t, Applicative f) => (a -> f b) -> t a -> f () #
Map each element of a structure to an action, evaluate these
actions from left to right, and ignore the results. For a version
that doesn't ignore the results see traverse
.
for_ :: (Foldable t, Applicative f) => t a -> (a -> f b) -> f () #
sequenceA_ :: (Foldable t, Applicative f) => t (f a) -> f () #
Evaluate each action in the structure from left to right, and
ignore the results. For a version that doesn't ignore the results
see sequenceA
.
asum :: (Foldable t, Alternative f) => t (f a) -> f a #
The sum of a collection of actions, generalizing concat
.
>>>
asum [Just "Hello", Nothing, Just "World"]
Just "Hello"
Monadic actions
sequence_ :: (Foldable t, Monad m) => t (m a) -> m () #
Evaluate each monadic action in the structure from left to right,
and ignore the results. For a version that doesn't ignore the
results see sequence
.
As of base 4.8.0.0, sequence_
is just sequenceA_
, specialized
to Monad
.
Specialized folds
concat :: Foldable t => t [a] -> [a] #
The concatenation of all the elements of a container of lists.
concatMap :: Foldable t => (a -> [b]) -> t a -> [b] #
Map a function over all the elements of a container and concatenate the resulting lists.
any :: Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool #
Determines whether any element of the structure satisfies the predicate.
all :: Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool #
Determines whether all elements of the structure satisfy the predicate.
maximumBy :: Foldable t => (a -> a -> Ordering) -> t a -> a #
The largest element of a non-empty structure with respect to the given comparison function.
minimumBy :: Foldable t => (a -> a -> Ordering) -> t a -> a #
The least element of a non-empty structure with respect to the given comparison function.